Industrial Revolution 4.0 Definition and Its Parts

Industrial Revolution 4.0 is a combination of Internet of Things, Big Data, Cloud Computing and Machine Learning in creating a product or can be called industrial revolution manufacturing. The draft of the term 4.0 industry was first used in 2011 in an industrial exhibition in Germany.

Why is it called Industrial Revolution 4.0? The simple meaning of the industrial revolution is a major change in the way humans produce things. The change has occurred several times and now is the fourth change or fourth generation.

Industrial Revolution 1.0 to IR 4.0

The following is a little explanation of the Industrial Revolution 1.0 to Industrial Revolution 4.0

Industrial Revolution 1.0

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In ancient times (manufacturing before the industrial revolution), humans used muscles in the process of making a product. The production process is only limited to human muscle strength. Production of goods can only produce a little. To lift the heavy goods carried out jointly by many people. There is a lot of waste, it requires a lot of employees but only produces a few products.

At IR 1.0 (Industrial Revolution version 1), besides using human power, the production process also uses wind power, horsepower and the use of pulleys. But all that is done manually, the production process cannot be carried out full 24 hours. They will be tired and need to rest to restore energy and concentration.

But all that changed dramatically since the discovery of the steam engine by James Watt. Now the production machine can run 24 hours full non-stop, with the application of steam engines on the production line. The industrial revolution in transportation was affected, the journey is faster than before.

With the invention of a steam engine, someone who wants to build a factory is not limited to labor. Human power can be replaced by a machine powered by a steam engine. Drastic changes occurred in terms of energy for the continuity of the production process.

James Watt in Industrial Revolution 1.0
James Watt by Carl Frederik von Breda, painting,1792

So the conclusion is IR 1.0 began since the discovery of the steam engine by James Watt in 1776.

Industrial Revolution 2.0

The industrial revolution 2.0 began in the early 20th century. In the second industrial revolution, electricity was discovered and replaced the function of the steam engine.

Even though electricity has been found, there are still some problems regarding the production process of goods. One obstacle is the process of moving goods from one place to another place. For example: To assemble a car they still focus on one assembly point, so the production process is not fast enough. The company must teach a lot of handyman for the production of many cars.

Until finally the production line was found using conveyor belts. This is the starting point of the second industrial revolution. With the conveyor system, the production process can be faster. The company no longer teaches handyman all the processes from the beginning to the end. The car assembly process is divided into several parts, one part per section.

Now producing large quantities of cars is more efficient because the use of conveyor belts can reduce the time and cost of production.

Industrial Revolution 3.0

IR 1.0 discovered steam engines and IR 2.0 found conveyor belts and electricity, then when did the IR 3.0 era start? The 3.0 industrial revolution was triggered by the use of robots and computers in the industry. A lot of human power is replaced by smart robots and computers.

Starting with the discovery of semiconductors, transistors and integrated chips, the size of the computer became smaller than the computer at the time it was discovered. With the smaller size of the computer, many machines are now fitted with computers. Machines become smart, can think like humans, can decide something complicated in a short time.

Industrial Revolution 4.0

In summary:

  • Industrial revolution 0.0: use human power, hydro-power and wind power to drive the engine.
  • Industrial Revolution 1.0: use a steam engine to drive the engine.
  • Industrial revolution 2.0: using conveyor belts on mass production lines and industrial electricity use.
  • Industrial Revolution 3.0: using robots and computers in the production of goods.

Then what are the major changes to the fourth revolution in the industrial world?

Major Changes in the Industrial Revolution. 4.0

1. Internet of Things

3.9 billion people in the world are connected to the internet. In addition, almost all computers are connected to the internet. Now the factory conditions can be monitored and controlled from anywhere and at any time by the owner. Basically, everything is all internet and depends on the internet, this is why there is the term Internet of Things.

2. Big Data

Based on data from the Internet of Things can be analyzed many things and produce information that is useful for the progress of the company. For example, in one company there are 2000 employees or 1000 sensors installed, from each sensor will provide information for 24 hours.

From sensor data, it can be seen which parts spend a lot of time, so it needs to be given special attention to shorten the time. 1000 sensors installed, will be able to provide a lot of data and many opportunities for increased productivity. This is why it’s called Big Data.

3. Cloud Computing

Nowadays the internet has become a necessity in every human activity. Including activities to supervise and control a company even running production machinery from far away places, even between countries.

Example: A company has seven factories in different countries, they do not need to buy a high spec computer for complex job calculations in seven factories. Just buy one super computer to manage shared data from the seven factories they have.

Shared data managed by supercomputers stored in the cloud, it is called cloud computing.

4. Machine Learning

Yes, this is a learning machine. Machines that can learn like humans. This machine is programmed to be able to think and solve problems. Then the programmed machine is installed in factories to help even replace the role of humans. Whether this is good news or bad for us, surely the learning machine is now available.

Hopefully this fourth revolution will bring goodness to all of us.

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